By Michael Anderson
Even supposing we regularly seek social and ancient records for clues to our prior, organic files probably carry an important facts of our background. The qualities we inherit from our mom and dad and move directly to our offspring are encoded in our genes and DNA and exhibit a lot approximately either our origins and our destiny. This quantity examines the interesting biology at the back of genetics and genetic issues. It additionally rigorously considers the rules of gene manipulation and genetic engineering whose power to revolutionize drugs, undefined, and agriculture is turning into more and more obvious with each new discovery.
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Additional info for A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology)
Some enzymes make incisions in each strand at a point immediately opposite another, producing “blunt end” DNA fragments. Most enzymes cut the two strands at a point not directly opposite each other, producing an overhang in each strand. These are called “sticky ends,” because they readily pair with complementary bases on another fragment. 59 A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering DNA sequences can be cut in two ways. One type of cut produces two DNA strands with blunt ends; that is, there is no overhang on one strand or the other.
When a male gamete combines with a female gamete during fertilization, the diploid chromosome number is restored. Genes and the Genetic Code As arbiters of body form and organ function, genes must operate with precision. Each gene contains a biochemical code for the synthesis of a protein. The fundamental component of a gene is DNA, a nucleic acid made up of two strands of biochemical units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a phosphate, deoxyribose (a sugar), and one of four nitrogen-bearing bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T).
In 1902 American biologist Walter Sutton and German biologist Theodor Boveri independently established that chromosomes followed Mendel’s principles. Using the 32 The Nature of Chromosomes and Genes grasshopper as his model organism, Sutton observed that chromosomes occurred in pairs and segregated and assorted independently during gamete formation. Boveri made the same observations with sea urchins. Based on their findings, the scientists also proposed that the factors (alleles) Mendel had discussed were located on chromosomes.
A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology) by Michael Anderson